Several minor security disturbances are happening in certain areas in Papua and Indonesia in general. The local governments together with the police are working hard to make Papua peaceful and safe especially after Kelly Kwalik died. The dynamic security condition in Papua is Indonesia’s internal affairs handled through the implementation of the Special Autonomy and The New Deal Policy for Papua.

Regulation No. 21/2001 regarding Special Autonomy is the legal basis for the Province and the people of Papua to gain wider legitimacy in managing itself and larger responsibility in running governance and exploiting its natural resources for the benefit of the people.

Since 2002, each district in Papua has received Special Autonomy Fund (SAF) managed by the Province of Papua. The West Papua Province has also received SAF since 2008. Total SAF given to the Province of Papua and West Papua up to now has reached Rp. 27 trillions. Aside of SAF, the Central Gov also provide special fund for governmental institutions in order to support the development in Papua and West Papua.

Given such large amount of funding, income per capita of Papuans are supposed to improved significantly. Efforts to implement Papua’s Special Automy have been conducted by the Central Goverment and also Provincial Government in forms of, among others:

   1. Socializing the value of Papua’s Special Autonomy as political policy provided for Papuans.
   2. Local Gov reshuffle and capacity-building programs.
   3. The establishment of Papua Peoples Assembly (MRP/Majelis Rakyat Papua).

Benefits expected to be received by the Papuans in terms of the establishment of the Special Autonomy are:

    * Large amount of fund in order to improve the level of education, health and prosperity of the Papuans.
    * The Papuans themselves decide what becomes the development’s priority, in accordance to their capability and will.
    * Large legitimacy to manage the special autonomy without external interference.

Despite all of the efforts conducted by the central government collaborating with the local government, it should be acknowledged that the Special Autonomy has yet to yield significant outcomes.

Several factors that likely influence the development in Papua are, among others:

   1. The existence of Papua separatist movements that put efforts to disturb the implementation of the Special Autonomy.
   2. Poor local government’s capacity.
   3. The need for synchronizing authority between the central, provincial and also districts’ governments.
   4. Poor infrastructure.
   5. Papua’s topography which makes it un-easy to reach.
   6. Poor condition of Special Autonomy Fund management thus creating the possibilities for corruption.